Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
Citrus has long been thought of as a low-maintenance crop. Though this crop is relatively low input, it is not hands free. Regular and timely scouting can keep the maintenance input to a minimum. This guide will provide you with a key to identify insect pests and diseases that may impact your production and beneficial insects that frequent the orchards. Insecticide and fungicide recommendations change along with the labels; always check the pesticide label before treating your crop. Insecticide and fungicide recommendations should be considered as suggestions; prepare a complete IPM plan for your orchard and keep good records of your insect pest issues.
The following are pests and diseases of citrus and how to manage them properly.
Citrus Rust Mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora
Citrus rust mites damage twigs, leaves, and fruit of citrus. Mites have piercing-sucking mouthparts. Read more about the citrus rust mite.
Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri
Citrus red mites are red in color and approximately 0.55 mm long. Females have an oval-shaped body, while males have a tapered, slightly smaller body. Read more about citrus red mites.
Citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri
Citrus whiteflies are small, mothlike insects that are approximately 1.2 mm long. Read more about citrus whiteflies.
Citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella
Citrus leafminer adults are moths with iridescent scales and a black spot on each wing. Adults are only about 2 mm long. Read more about citrus leafminer.
Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri
The Asian citrus psyllid is an exotic pest that is the vector of citrus greening disease. Read more about the asian citrus psyllid.
Scale, Coccoidea Family
Many types of scale insects can be found in citrus. This is a large family of insects that has a broad range of size and coloring. Read more about scale insects.
Leaf-footed Bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus
Adult leaf-footed bugs have a flattened, leaflike appearance with a distinctive straight band across their dorsal sides. Read more about leaf-footed bugs.
Greasy Spot, Mycosphaerella citri
Leaf symptoms initially appear as yellow spots on the upper leaf surface, with brown blisters on the underside of the leaf. Read more about greasy spot.
Melanose, Diaporthe citri
Brown, raised pustules, which may be surrounded by yellow halos, appear on the upper leaf surface causing it to be rough. Read more about Melanose.
Citrus Scab, Elsinoe fawcettii
Foliar symptoms consist of fingerlike projections or lesions that may contain a tan pustule at the tip. Read more about citrus scab.
Phytophthora Root Rot, Phytophthora nicotianae
Initial symptoms include vein yellowing followed by yellow foliage, poor growth, and shoot dieback. Advanced symptoms consist of leaf and fruit drop, trunk lesions, and tree death. Read more about Phytophthora Root Rot.
Citrus Canker, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri
Foliar lesions have raised, concentric circles on the underside of the leaf. Lesions frequently are surrounded by a water-soaked margin and a yellow halo. Read more about citrus canker.
Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus
The most characteristic symptom of HLB is blotchy mottling that appears asymmetrically on the leaf blade. Green islands may also occur; these are small, circular, dark green dots that contrast with the light yellow/green background. Read more about Citrus Greening or Huanglongbing.