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Alabama Aquatic Nuisance Species: Amazonian Apple Snail

…gylus cantonensis), intestinal fluke (Echinostoma ilocanum), and the human endoparasite rat lungworm (Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis).

Invasive apple snails mature quickly, reaching sexual maturity with 60 to 80 days. They can lay more…

4 min read

Blackleg and Other Clostridial Diseases in Cattle

…r the skin (subcutaneously or SQ) in the neck area. This will prevent injection-site damage to high-value cuts of meat. Good injection practices will prevent most injection- site damage. Even a negative reaction to an SQ vaccination will no…

5 min read

Leptospirosis in Cattle

…e infecting serovar, and the age of the animal infected. In herds with adequate resistance, ideally developed through a good vaccination program or in some cases natural exposure, cattle may be infected with the organism but not show signs …

3 min read

Scheduling All-In/All-Out Swine Production

…ith continuous flow, the farrowing area often serves as a disease reservoir, constantly infecting each new litter. With good sanitation in AIAO, passing diseases between groups is not a problem. In addition, because pigs in AIAO are close t…

12 min read

Managing Feeder Pigs

…s following arrival. The stress of transportation and mixing can leave these pigs weak and susceptible to disease.

A good feeder-pig finisher must reduce the stresses of sale and shipping, including the following:


8 min read

Bovine Anaplasmosis

… weights, infertility, etc.). In mild cases, abortion and decreased milk production may be the only problems, which may go unnoticed.
Acute cases of anaplasmosis are diagnosed microscopically by finding A. marginale bodies at th…

3 min read

Adding Agricultural Lime to Fishponds

…uburn University Soil Testing Laboratory can test pond bottom soils to determine the amount of lime needed. To obtain a good representation of the entire pond, several samples (3 to 6 per acre) should be taken from different areas of the po…

5 min read

Interpreting Soil Test Reports from Commercial Labs

…nd result in higher P recommendations compared to the Mississippi extract.
Mehlich-3 is the only extract that does a good job of extracting some micronutrients but may not be reliable in predicting deficiencies.
None of the extracts i…

6 min read

Alabama Soils: Piedmont Plateau

…oils are old and highly weathered.
These soils are generally well-drained and relatively fertile. Two hundred years ago, these were the most productive soils in the U.S. It was in the Piedmont that George Washington and Thomas Jefferson …

2 min read

Commercial Applicator Frequently Asked Questions

…ma Department of Agriculture and Industries for commercial applicator permit questions at 334-240-7243.

How many categories of commercial pesticide applicators are there in Alabama?
There are more than 20 categories.
I don’t know wha…

4 min read

El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Its Impact on Alabama’s Climate


Climate Risk Tool: climate_tool/

Climate Impacts: products/precip/CWlink/ENSO/composites/

ENSO overview: products/ precip/CWlink/MJO…

5 min read

Adapting Corn Production to Climate in Alabama

Climate Risk Tool:

Climate Impacts:

ENSO overview: precip/CWlink/MJ…

3 min read

Spider Mite Scouting and Management in Vegetable Crops

…ider mites are about 0.4 mm or smaller – they may look like dust particles with a naked eye. Due to their small size, good scouting practices include a magnifying lens, camera (even smartphone cameras can be used for magnification and rec…

4 min read

Slug Management in Vegetables

…s do not provide control. Commercial snail and slug-control materials typically contain:

Iron phosphate (e.g., Sluggo by Montery, OMRI-certified; Bonide Slug Magic for Gardens),
Volatile oil blend (Monterey All Natural Snail & S…

3 min read

About Soils

…ant roots are found in the topsoil, or A horizon, this layer has the greatest effect on plant growth. A typical soil in good condition has four physical components: minerals, air, water, and organic material.  
The mineral compo…

3 min read