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Mode of Action Video – Glossary

Absorption: The movement of a chemical into plants, animals (including humans), microorganisms, or soil.

ACCase Inhibitors: Mainly kill grasses. This enzyme helps the formation of lipids or fats in the roots of grass plants. Without lipids, susceptible weeds die.

Acaricide: A pesticide used to control mites and ticks. A miticide is a type of acaricide.

Acidic: Having a pH less than 7.

Action Threshold: A predetermined level of pest infestation or damage at which some type of pest management action must be taken.

Activator: An adjuvant added to a pesticide to increase its toxicity.

Adsorption: The process whereby chemicals are held or bound to a surface by physical or chemical attraction. Clay and high-organic soils tend to adsorb pesticides.

Aerosol: A chemical stored in a container under pressure. An extremely fine mist is produced when the material, dissolved in a liquid, is released into the air.

Algaecide: Pesticide used to kill or inhibit algae.

Antibiotics: Chemical produced by a microorganism that is toxic to other microorganisms.

Anticoagulant: A chemical that prevents normal blood clotting; the active ingredient in some rodenticides.

Attractant: A substance or device to lure insects or other pests to a trap or poison bait.

Avicide: A chemical used to kill or repel birds.

Bactericides: Chemical used to control bacteria.

Bait: A food or other substance used to attract a pest to a pesticide or a trap.

Bioaccumulation: The ability of organisms to accumulate or store chemicals in their tissues.

Biological Control: The control of pests using predators, parasites, and disease-causing organisms. It may be naturally occurring or introduced.

Biological Degradation: The breakdown of chemicals due to the activity of living organisms, especially bacteria and fungi in the soil.

Biomagnification: Process whereby some organisms accumulate chemical residues in higher concentrations than those found in the organisms they consume.

Biopesticide: A pesticide derived from naturally occurring materials.

Botanical Pesticide: A pesticide produced from naturally occurring chemicals in plants. Examples: nicotine, pyrethrum, and rotenone.

Broad Spectrum Pesticides: Kill or harm a wide variety of organisms, both beneficial and harmful pests, and then there are those that target a specific trait in a pest.

Carbamates: A group of pesticides commonly used for control of insects, mites, fungi, and weeds. N-methyl carbamate insecticides, miticides, and nematicides are cholinesterase inhibitors.

Chlorinated Hydrocarbon: A pesticide containing chlorine, carbon, and hydrogen. Many are persistent in the environment. Examples: chlordane, DDT, methoxychlor. Also called ORGANOCHLORINES.

Chlorosis: The yellowing of a plant’s normally green tissue.

Cholinesterase: A chemical catalyst (enzyme) found in humans and many other animals that regulates the activity of nerve impulses by deactivating the chemical neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Contact Mode of Action: Pesticides do not penetrate the host while controlling the pests. It acts as a barrier or repellent in a plant, or by killing any green tissue present.

Defoliant: A chemical that initiates the premature drop of leaves, often as an aid in harvesting a crop.

Desiccant: A pesticide that causes death to plants or pests by drying them out.

Disinfectants: Are pesticides that remove germs, also, commonly refers to chemicals used to clean or surface sterilize inanimate objects.

Electron Inhibitors: Are pesticides that stop the transport of electrons with in a plant.

Enzyme Blockers: (or ALS Inhibitors) Are chemicals that block the normal function of an enzyme called acetolactate synthase or ALS. This enzyme is essential in amino acid or protein synthesis. Without proteins, plants starve to death. Enzyme blockers kill a wide range of plants including broadleaf weeds, nutsedges, and grasses.

Enzyme Inhibitors: Break down and disrupt or inactivate the structure of proteins and enzymes leading to a loss of function.

Foliar: Pesticide applications to the leaves of plants.

Fungi(fungus): A multicellular lower plant lacking chlorophyll, such as a mold, mildew, or plant rust.

Fungicides: Inhibit fungal growth by interfering with cellular development. Many work by damaging cell membranes, stopping or halting critical enzymes or proteins, or interrupting various metabolic processes such as respiration.

Growth regulators: Commonly referred to as synthetic auxins are chemicals that mimic natural plant hormones and interrupt plant cell growth in newly forming stems and leaves. They affect protein production and normal cell division, leading to malformed growth. They also kill plants by causing the cells in the tissues that carry water and nutrients to divide and grow without stopping. Often called “growing itself to death,” which is seen by one side of the stem being longer than the other.

Herbicide: A pesticide used to control weeds.

Host: A plant or animal on or in which a pest lives and feeds.

Inhibitors: Stop cells from dividing at the nuclear level preventing RNA or DNA from constructing.

Inhibitors of Bacterial Protein Synthesis: Include several types of antibacterial agents. These target bacterial protein synthesis by binding to various ribosomes. This results in the disruption of bacteria’s normal cellular metabolism and consequently leads to the death of the organism or the stopping of its growth.

Inhibitors of Bacterial Wall Synthesis: Are drugs that target cell walls selectively killing or inhibiting bacterial organisms.

Inhibitors of DNA Synthesis: Don’t allow DNA to synthesize. Work by binding to components involved in the process of DNA or RNA synthesis and cause interference of the normal cellular processes and ultimately compromise bacterial multiplication and survival.

Insect Growth Regulators: Inhibit the normal life cycle of insects by copying one of these hormones, directly interrupting cuticle development, or loss in fat building. These would make insects die from staying in the immature life stage indefinitely.

Insecticides: Control insects and other arthropods.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM): The use of all suitable pest control methods to keep pest populations below the economic injury level. Methods include cultural practices; use of biological, physical, and genetic control agents; and the selective use of pesticides.

Larvicide: A pesticide used to kill insect larvae. Commonly used to control mosquito and black fly larvae.
Metamorphosis: A change in the shape, size, and/or form of animals as they develop from eggs through adults.

Midgut Poisons: Are poisons that attack the guts of insects via protein toxins leading to unbalanced ions, or salts and other minerals, and septicemia, or blood poisoning.

Miticide: A pesticide used to control mites.

Mode of Action: The way a pesticide exerts a toxic effect on the target plant, animal or microorganism and can be divided into two categories: systemic, and contact.

Molluscicide: A chemical used to control snails and slugs.

Molting: In invertebrates such as insects, spiders, and mites, the process of shedding the outer body covering or exoskeleton. Molting takes place to allow the animal to grow larger.

Mutagen: A substance or agent able to cause genetic changes in living cells.

Narrow-Spectrum Pesticide: A pesticide that is effective against only one or a few species of pests; the term is usually associated with insecticides and fungicides.

Necrosis: The death of plant or animal tissues that results in the formation of discolored, sunken, and dead (necrotic) areas.

Nematicide: A pesticide used to control nematodes.

Nematode: Elongated, cylindrical, non-segmented worms. Nematodes are commonly microscopic, some are parasites of plant animals.

Nerve and Muscle Poisons: Disrupt, inhibit, block, terminate or activate various channels, enzymes and receptors within the pests. This results in a range of symptoms such as paralysis, hyper excitation, system shutdowns and overly stimulated muscle contraction.

Neurotoxin: A substance or agent able to cause disorders of the nervous system.

Non-Selective Pesticide: A pesticide that is toxic to a wide range of plants or animals without regard to species. For example, a non-selective herbicide can kill or damage all plants it contacts.

Non-Specific Target Insecticides: Known to affect less well-described target-sites or functions, or to act non-specifically on multiple targets.

Organophosphates: A large group of pesticides that contain the element phosphorus. Most are non-persistent insecticides, miticides, and nematicides. Many are highly toxic

Oncogen: A substance or agent able to induce tumors (not necessarily cancerous) in living tissues.

Ovicide: A material that destroys eggs.

Pest: An undesirable organism (insect, bacterium, fungus, nematode, weed, virus, rodent) that is injurious to humans, desirable plants and animals, manufactured products, or natural products.

Pesticide Resistance Strategy: Prevent resistance by monitoring the pests for changes in population densities, focusing on economic injury levels and integrating multiple control strategies.

Pesticides: Are chemicals used to control a pest.

Pheromone: A substance emitted by an animal to influence the behavior of other animals of the same species. Some are synthetically produced for use in insect traps.

Photosynthetic Inhibitors: Are chemicals that interfere with photosynthesis, a plants natural ability to make food, and disrupt plant growth, ultimately leading to death.

Piscicide: A chemical used to control pest fish.

Pigment inhibitors: (bleachers) Herbicides that interrupt the chlorophyll production in the plant turning the plant tissue white and interrupting photosynthesis.

Plant Growth Regulator (PGR): A pesticide used to regulate or alter the normal growth of plants or the development of their plant parts.

Predacide: A pesticide used to control predaceous animals, usually mammals.

Pyrethroid: A synthetic insecticide that mimics pyrethrin, a naturally occurring pesticide derived from certain species of chrysanthemum flowers.

Resistance: When a population of organisms that are uninjured or unaffected by a certain dosage of pesticide chemical used to successfully control populations of the same organisms.

Repellents: Are pesticides that repel pests. Respirators: inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthase, and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of the proton gradient or Mitochondrial complex electron transport inhibitors.

Rodenticide: A substance designed to kill a rodent.

Seed Protectant: A pesticide applied to seeds before planting to protect them from insects, fungi, and other soil pests.

Selective Pesticide: A pesticide that is toxic to some pests but has little or no effect on other similar species. Example: some fungicides are so selective that they control only powdery mildews and no other fungi.

Silvicide: A herbicide used to destroy brush and trees.

Sterilant: A pesticide that prevents pests from reproducing.

Sterol Synthesis Inhibitors: Stop the process that produces ergosterol. This is similar to cholesterol in humans and most fungi need this or membrane structure and function.

Systemic Mode of Action: The pesticide penetrating the plant or animal and translocating within its systems with the intent to kill the leaves and root system or protect it from bacteria, viruses or other pests.

Target: The plants, animals, structures, areas, or pests at which the control method is directed.

Termiticide: An insecticide used to control termites.

Tolerance: The maximum amount of a pesticide residue that may legally remain on or in food or feed commodities at harvest or slaughter.

Tolerant: A characteristic of organisms that are able to withstand a certain degree of stress such as weather, pesticides, or attack by a pest.

 

Route of Entry Video – Glossary

Absorbent: The movement of a chemical into plants, animals (including humans), microorganisms, or soil.

Active ingredient: The chemical or chemicals in a product responsible for pesticidal activity.

Acute Effect: An illness that occurs shortly after exposure to a pesticide.

Acute Exposure: Is caused by a single, one-time exposure event, showing up within seconds or minutes of exposure.

Acute Onset: The commencement of symptoms of pesticide-related injury that appear soon after the exposure incident.

Allergic Effects /Allergy: A hypersensitivity to a specific substance, often called the allergen. An allergy may cause dermatitis, blisters, or hives; it could also cause illness, asthma, or life-threatening shock. Often the entire body is affected. Pesticide allergy symptoms are similar to other allergy symptoms—reddening and itching of the eyes, respiratory discomfort, and asthma-like symptoms.

Anticoagulant: Any substance that prevents the clotting of blood.

Antidotes: Are available for a few classes of pesticides here, such as anticoagulant type.

Atropine (Atropine Sulfate): An antidote used to treat organophosphate and carbamate poisoning.

Brand Name: The registered or trade name, number, or designation given to a specific pesticide product or device by the manufacturer or formulator.

Carbamates: A group of pesticides commonly used for control of insects, mites, fungi, and weeds. N-methyl carbamate insecticides, miticides, and nematicides are cholinesterase inhibitors.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): Procedure designed to restore normal breathing after breathing and heartbeat has stopped.

CAUTION: Have a lower risk pesticide and present less hazard. Toxicity may be contact, irritation of eyes, skin, of respiratory tract; or systemic.

Chemical Name: The technical name of the active ingredient(s) found in the formulated product. This complex name is derived from the chemical structure of the active ingredient.

Chronic Illness: An illness that will last for long periods of time. Cancer respiratory disorders, and neurological disorders are example of chronic illnesses that have been associated with exposures to some types of pesticides.

Chronic Toxicity: Is long term exposure, taking place over weeks, months or years.

Contamination: The presence of unwanted substance in or on a plant, animal, soil, water, air, or structure.

Contact Effects: Injury at the point of contact, including skin discoloration and irritation (dermatitis) such as itching, redness, rashes, blisters, and burns. Also, swelling, stinging, and burning of the eyes, nose, mouth, or throat are contact effects.

Corrosive Poison: A poison containing a strong acid or base that will severely burn the skin, mouth, stomach, or respiratory tract.

DANGER: Indicates the potential for permanent damage to skin, eyes, or lungs.

DANGER POISON: Is poison through any route of entry. Toxicity may be oral, dermal or inhalation. It has skull and crossbones.

Decontaminate: To remove or degrade a chemical residue from the skin or a surface. defoaming agent An adjuvant used to reduce the foaming of a spray mixture due to agitation.

Delayed Toxicity: Illnesses or injuries that do not appear immediately after exposure to pesticides. The effects generally occur between 24 hours and several days after exposure.

Dermal: Pertaining to the skin.

Dermal Toxicity: The ability of a pesticide to cause injury to a human or animal when absorbed through the skin.

Dermatitis: The inflammation, itching, irritation, or occurrence of a rash after exposure to a chemical.

Diagnosis: The positive identification of a problem and its cause.

Dilution/Diluent: Any inert liquid, solid, or gaseous material that is combined with a pesticide active ingredient during the manufacturing process. Also, the water, petroleum product, or other product, or other liquid in which the formulated product is mixed before application. Also referred to as Carrier.

Directions for Use: The instructions found on pesticide labels indicating the proper use of the pesticide product.

Dusts (Applications): A finely ground, dry pesticide formulation containing a small amount of active ingredient and a large amount of inert carrier or diluent such as clay or talc.

Emulsifiable Concentrates: A pesticide formulation produced by mixing and active ingredient and an emulsifying agent in a suitable petroleum solvent. When it is added to water, a milky emulsion is usually formed.

Environmental and Special Warning Statements: Help you avoid contaminating the environment.

Exposure: Unwanted contact with pesticides or pesticide residues by people, other organisms or the environment.

Eyes (ocular): Exposure to pesticides or unwanted chemicals or substance through the eyes.

First Aid: The immediate assistance provided to someone who has been exposed to a pesticide or chemical. First aid for pesticide exposure usually involves removal of contaminated clothing and washing the affected area of the body to remove as much of the pesticide material as possible.

Formulation: The Pesticide Product as purchased, containing a mixture of one or more active ingredients, carries (inert ingredients), and other additives diluted for safety and ease of application.

Granular: A dry pesticide formulation. The Active Ingredient is either mixed with or coated onto an inert carrier to form a small, ready-to-use, low concentrate particle that does not normally present a drift hazard.

Hazard: The likelihood that injury or death will occur from a given level and duration of exposure to a toxic chemical.

Heat Stress: A potentially life-threatening over- heating of the body.

Hygiene: As it applies to pesticide exposure or chemical exposure, ensure to wash exposed body areas right away to remove pesticide residue.

Inhalation: The property of a pesticide to be poisonous to humans or animals when breathed in through the nose and mouth into the lungs.

LC50: The concentration of a pesticide, usually in air or water, that can kill 50 percent of a test population of animals. LC50 is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm). The lower the LC50 value, the more acutely toxic the chemical.

LD50: The dose or amount of a pesticide that can kill 50 percent of the test animals when eaten or absorbed through the skin. LD50 is expressed in milligrams of chemical per kilogram of body weight of the test animal (mg/kg). The lower the LD50 value, the more acutely toxic the chemical.

Label: All printed material attached to or part of a pesticide container. The label is a legal document.

Lethal Concentration: See LC50.

Lethal Dose: See LD50.

Lungs (inhalation): Exposure to pesticides or unwanted chemicals or substance through inhalation into the lungs (breathing).

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): A safety data sheet available from the manufacturer that provides information on chemical properties, toxicity, first aid, hazards, personal protective equipment, and emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a spill, leak, fire, or transportation crisis.

Mouth to Mouth Resuscitation: Rescue Breathing, given mouth to mouth, to assists or restore breathing to a person who is not breathing or is experiencing breathing difficulty.

Non-soluble chemicals: Chemicals that cannot break down and are eventually stored in fatty deposits in the body and breast milk.

Ocular: Pertaining to the eyes. This is one of the routes of entry of pesticides into the body.

Oral Exposures: Exposure to pesticides or unwanted chemicals or substance through the mouth.

Oral Toxicity: The occurrence of injury when a pesticide is taken by mouth.

Organophosphate: A large group of pesticides that contain the element phosphorus. Most are non-persistent insecticides, miticides, and nematicides. Many are highly toxic.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): Devices and clothing that protect pesticide applicators, handlers, and workers from exposure to pesticides.

Pesticide: Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any insects, rodents, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, or weeds, or any other forms of life declared to be pests; and any other substance of mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant.

Pesticide Use Hazard: The potential for a pesticide to cause injury or damage during handling or application.

Poison Control Center: An agency, generally a hospital, that has current information on proper first-aid techniques and antidotes for poisoning emergencies.

Precautionary statements: Help you decide how to protect yourself, other people, or animals from exposure and can be found in several sections of the label.

Protective Clothing: Garments that cover the body, arms and legs.

Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings Manual: A manual used to help recognize and manage pesticide poisonings that can be purchased through the EPA website.

Restricted Use Pesticides, RUP: A highly hazardous Pesticide that can only be purchased, possessed or used by a person who is a certified applicator or under the supervision of a certified applicator.

Rodenticides: A chemical used to control rodents.

Signal word: Words required to appear on every pesticide label to denote the relative acute toxicity of the product.

Route of exposure: The way a pesticide gets onto or into the body. The fours routes of exposure are dermal (skin), ocular (eyes), respiratory (lungs), and oral (mouth).

Sensitization: An allergic reaction to pesticides.

Signal Words: Words that are required to appear on every pesticide label to denote the relative acute toxicity of the product. The signal words are DANGER—POISON used with a skull and crossbones symbol for potentially lethal products, DANGER for severe skin and eye damage, WARNING for moderately toxic, or CAUTION for slightly toxic compounds.

Skin (dermal): The exposure to pesticides, chemicals or other substance through the skin into the blood stream or other organs.

Special Toxicity Statements: Say if the product is hazardous to wildlife and what precautions to take.
Specific Action Statements: gives precautions and PPE.

Symptom: Any detectable change in an organism resulting from the activities of a pathogen or other pest. Also, an indication of pesticide poisoning in humans and other animals.

Toxicity: The degree to which a substance is poisonous.

Unclassified General Use: Typically have lower toxicity and are less harmful to humans and the environment. Anyone can purchase these without permits or restrictions.

WARNING – AVISO: Are moderately hazardous pesticides.

Water soluble: A liquid pesticide formulation that dissolves in water to form a true solution.

Wettable powders: A dry pesticide formulation in powder form that forms a suspension when added to water.

Absorbent: The movement of a chemical into plants, animals (including humans), microorganisms, or soil.

Absorption: The movement of a chemical into plants, animals (including humans), microorganisms, or soil.

Agitation: The process of stirring or mixing in a sprayer.

Agricultural Employer: Any person who hires or contracts for the services of workers, for any type of compensation, to perform activities related to the production of agricultural plants, or any person who is an owner of or is responsible for the management or condition of an agricultural establishment that uses workers.

Air Blast Applications: Pesticide application that uses a large volume of air moving at high speed to break up and disperse spray droplets from the nozzles.

Air Purifying Respirators: Remove contaminants from the air you breathe.

Atmosphere Supplying Respirators: Provide clean air from an uncontaminated source.

Certified Applicator: A person who is certified to use or supervise the use of any restricted-use pesticide covered by his certification.

Commercial Applicator: A certified applicator who uses or supervises the use of pesticides for purposes other than those covered under a private applicator certification.

Concentration: The amount of active ingredient in a given volume or weight of formulated product.

Coveralls: Loose fitting, piece garments that cover the entire body, except head, hands and feet.

Dermal: Pertaining to the skin.

Dilution/Diluent: Any inert liquid, solid, or gaseous material that is combined with a pesticide active ingredient during the manufacturing process. Also, the water, petroleum product, or other product, or other liquid in which the formulated product is mixed before application. Also referred to as Carrier.

Directions for Use: The instructions found on pesticide labels indicating the proper use of pesticide product.

Drift: The movement of pesticide dust, spray, or vapor away from the application site.

Dusts (Applications): A finely ground, dry pesticide formulation containing a small amount of active ingredient and a large amount of inert carrier or diluent such as clay or talc.

Early Entry Worker: An employee who enters a pesticide treated area on an agricultural establishment after a pesticide application is complete, but before any restricted-entry interval for the pesticide has expired.

Enclosed cab: Tractor cabs, cockpits, and truck/ vehicle cabs that surround the occupant(s) and may help to prevent exposure to pesticides as long as all doors, hatches or windows are kept closed during the pesticide application.

Exposure: Contact with pesticides or pesticide residue, by people, other organisms, or the environment.

Field Worker: An employee of a farming operation who engages in agricultural production tasks.

FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, passed in 1947 to regulate the marketing of Pesticides.

Fit test: Ensures the right size and type of respirator.

Fog (Applications): The application of a pesticide as a fine mist or fog.

Formulation: The Pesticide Product as purchased, containing a mixture of one or more active ingredients, carries (inert ingredients), and other additives diluted for safety and ease of application.

Handler: Any person who mixes, loads, transfers, or applies pesticides, or who cleans or repairs contaminated equipment, works as a flagger, or handles unsealed pesticide containers.

Hazard: The likelihood that injury or death will occur from a given level and duration of exposure to a toxic chemical.

Hazardous Waste: Waste that poses substantial or potential threat to health and the environment.

Headgear: Hats, masks, goggles that help protect you from exposure to chemicals.

Label: All printed material attached to or part of a pesticide container. The label is a legal document.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS): A safety data sheet available from the manufacturer that provides information on chemical properties, toxicity, first aid, hazards, personal protective equipment, and emergency procedures to be followed in the event of a spill, leak, fire, or transportation crisis.

Negative Pressure Seal Check: Cover the surface or hole that air is inhaled or sucked in from. When sealed it should collapse towards your face.

NIOSH: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

Particulate filters: Remove dusts, aerosols and sprays.

Personal Protective Equipment, PPE: Devices and garments that protect handlers from exposure to pesticides. These include coveralls, eye protection, gloves and boots, respirators, aprons, and hats.

Pesticide: Any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating any insects, rodents, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, or weeds, or any other forms of life declared to be pests; and any other substance of mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant.

Positive Pressure Seal Check: Cover exhalation port with palm and lightly exhale into mask. You will feel air escaping through gaps in seal.

Precautionary Statements: The section on pesticide labels where human and environmental hazards are listed. Personal Protective equipment requirements are listed here, as well as first aid instructions and information for physicians.

Protective Equipment: Equipment intended to protect a person from exposure during the handling and application of pesticides. Includes long-sleeved shirts and long trousers, coveralls, suitable hats, gloves, shoes, respirators, and other safety items as needed.

Regulatory Agencies: A public authority or government agency responsible in their area in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.

Residue: Traces of pesticide that remain on treated surfaces after a period of time.

Respiratory Equipment: A device that filters out pesticide dusts, mists, and vapors to protect the wearer from respiratory exposure during mixing and loading, application, or while entering treated areas before the restricted-entry interval expires.

Restricted-Entry Interval (REI): The amount of time that must elapse between treatment of the crop and the time when a person can reenter and handle the crop without wearing protective clothing and equipment or receiving early-entry training. Also referred to as reentry interval.

Restricted Use Pesticides, RUP: A highly hazardous Pesticide that can only be purchased, possessed or used by a person who is a certified applicator or under the supervision of a certified applicator.

Reusable: An item that can be used more than once.

Route of exposure: The way a pesticide gets onto or into the body. The fours routes of exposure are dermal (skin), ocular (eyes), respiratory (lungs), and oral (mouth).

Solvent: A liquid such as water, oil, or alcohol that will dissolve another substance (solid, liquid, or gas) to form a solution.

States Lead Agencies: The agency within a state or territory designated by the EPA as having the authority for carrying out the provisions of FIFRA.

Tolerant: (Chemical Resistant): A characteristic of organisms (including pests) that are able to withstand a certain degree of stress such as weather, pesticides, or attack by a pest.

Toxicity: The potential the pesticide has for causing harm.

Worker Protection Standard (WPS): A federal regulation that intends to reduce the risk of pesticide poisoning and injuries among agricultural workers and handlers. The WPS requires agricultural employers to provide protections to workers and handlers, including but not limited to: safety training, posting of application sites, and decontamination supplies.

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