Forestry & Wildlife
The latest buzz in the wild pig world still revolves around the development of toxicants for use in controlling wild pigs. There are two toxicants currently in the running for use on wild pigs, warfarin and sodium nitrite.
Products Under Research
Warfarin, an anticoagulant and the active ingredient in Kaput Feral Hog bait, is the only toxicant currently registered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use on wild pigs. However, Texas was the only state to register this product for use on wild pigs. Because some stakeholder groups threatened to pursue litigation, the manufacturer subsequently withdrew their registration. This means that this product is not currently available for use in any state, including Alabama. The manufacturer and state and federal agencies continue to research how this product can be used safely and to prevent non-target species such as black bears from accessing the product.
Kaput’s active ingredient, warfarin, is also the active ingredient in a number of rodenticides. The uniqueness and safety aspects of Kaput is that concentration of warfarin is 1/5th the concentration of rodenticides. Wild pigs must consume multiple doses to reach lethal levels.
Sodium nitrite is the other toxicant currently under research that shows promise. Sodium nitrite is a food preservative. However, when ingested in sufficient quantities, it prevents the release of oxygen by red blood cells and kills the animals through hypoxia. Sodium nitrite is currently undergoing some final field-based research to gather additional data prior to making a submission to EPA for registration.
Will Toxicants Ever Be Available?
Based on consumer interest and ongoing research, some type of toxicants will likely become available for wild pigs. Scientists continue to research how these products can be used to effectively and safely control wild pigs. Additionally, research is investigating how the public views toxicant use.
Trade and brand names used in this publication are given for information purposes only. No guarantee, endorsement, or discrimination among comparable products is intended or implied by the Alabama Cooperative Extension System.