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Hereford and angus cattle

Nutrient Composition of By-Product Feeds

The nutrient composition of by-products varies widely. The following table is a general guideline for understanding feed composition, but a feed analysis should be requested to more accurately determine feed value for your situation.

Table 1. Nutrient Composition of Byproduct Feeds

Adapted from NRC (1996) and Preston (2014) Feed Composition Tables
DM, dry matter; TDN, total digestible nutrients; CP, crude protein; Ca, calcium; P, phosphorous.

FeedType†DM,‡ %TDN,%CP,%Ca,%P,%
Citrus Pulp908271.70.2
Cottonseed Meal9078450.201.00
Cottonseed Hulls904240.150.10
Corn Gluten Feed (CGF)9083240.080.55
Dried Distiller’s Grains (DDGS)9095280.050.88
Gin Trash854580.900.20
Peanut Hulls902581.200.10
Peanut Skins9065170.190.20
Rice Bran9071140.071.70
Soybean Hulls9078120.550.20
Wheat Middlings9083180.161.10
Whole Cottonseed9093230.601.10
CGF : Soyhulls
DDGS : Soyhulls


Selecting an Energy or Protein Supplement

Evaluate the feed on a cost per pound (lb) of nutrient basis.

2000 lb per ton x % DM x % TDN = lb TDN

$ per ton / lb TDN = $ per lb TDN


2000 lb per ton x % DM x % CP = lb CP

$ per ton / lb CP = $ per lb CP


What is the cost of soybean hulls as an energy supplement?

Given: 90% dry matter, 75% TDN, 12% CP $180 per ton

2000 lb per ton x 0.90 x 0.75 = 1350 lb TDN per ton

$180 per ton / 1350 lb TDN per ton = $0.13 per lb TDN

Bulk Density of Commodities

The following table provides density estimations for storage considerations.

Table 2: Density Estimations for Storage Considerations

Based on standard, dry storage moisture content
Sources: Kammel (1991); Rankins, unpublished data, 2013

Commodity†Pounds per Cubic Foot‡
Broiler litter42
Citrus pulp, loose20
Citrus pulp, pelleted45
Corn, shelled45
Corn gluten feed33
Cottonseed meal38
Dried Distiller’s Grains18
Oats, grain26
Peanut hulls, loose7
Peanut skins11
Rice bran20
Soybean hulls, loose28
Soybean hulls, pelleted40
Wet Distiller’s Grains40
Wheat middlings30
Whole cottonseed25


For further information on by-product feeds, consult the publication, By-Product Feeds for Alabama Beef Cattle, ANR-1237. 

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