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Are chloramines effective in oxidizing and removing iron and manganese from drinking water?
No. Although chloramines are effective for secondary disinfection of drinking water, they are not as effective in oxidizing dissolved iron and manganese to insoluble forms to facilitate their filtration removal as are some of the other chemicals used for drinking water disinfection. Chloramines are normally created from the reaction of chlorine and ammonia in the water stream to provide residual disinfection of drinking water in a distribution system. They are used for this purpose because they form fewer chlorinated organics in water than chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Chlorine is very effective in oxidizing iron and manganese to insoluble forms that can be easily filtered from the water stream. Chlorine dioxide, and potassium permanganate, as well as ozone, are also effective in the oxidation removal of iron and manganese from water.



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This website was developed by the ACES Water Quality Team, under the leadership of Dr. James E. Hairston. It is funded, in part, by USDA-CSREES water quality grant support under Section 406 of the Agricultural Research, Extension and Education Reform Act of 1998.