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Livestock is the second component of a silvopasture system. When thinking about livestock in silvopasture, it is important to consider what type of livestock works best for your site and lifestyle, needs of the livestock, and how the livestock will interact with the trees and forage.
Conventional livestock choices for silvopasture include cattle, sheep, goats, and horses while other systems might focus on wildlife such as supplying forage for deer. Often livestock grazing is managed as continuous stocking, where the animals are maintained on a single pasture, or rotational grazing, where livestock are moved to fresh paddocks after a set time.

Fencing and water are other important considerations. Fence plans should be flexible and not limit grazing options because overgrazing can reduce the nutritional composition for the animal and reduces the regeneration of forage. Water requirements will vary for the kind, size, age, condition, and breed of livestock and the environmental conditions such as air temperature. In general it is recommended that water be made available in every paddock and that the travel distance is kept to less than 800 feet.

In a silvopasture setting, livestock can potentially hamper the establishment of trees if not managed carefully. In general, browsing animals such as sheep, goats or deer are more likely to eat trees; whereas, large grazing animals such as cattle are more likely to physically break young trees from rubbing or trampling them. It is a generally accepted practice that livestock can be introduced into a silvopasture when trees reach a height of 5-6 feet tall.

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