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Alabama Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Center

Pest Classification According to Mouthparts/Feeding Injury

Insects with chewing mouthparts

Name Adult Image* Larva Image* Behavior (If Data is on File)
Granulate cutworm (Agrotis subterranea)
Black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon)
Corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea)
Tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens)
Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda))
Lesser cornstalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus)
  • Research indicates that LCB is better able to survive dry soil conditions in which its natural predators cannot thrive. This anomaly results in a greater incidence of LCB in the soil.
  • Larvae of this insect are attracted to carbon dioxide and heat released by below-ground plant parts of peanuts.
Green cloverworm (Platypena scabra)
Velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis)
Southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi)
  • Larvae do not make webs, so feeding injury from smaller instars may not be evident on the pods.
  • Adult beetle is highly migratory and a strong flyer.
Bahiagrass borer (Derobrachus brevicollis) & feeding injury
White grubs (several species)
Wireworms (several species)
  • Good mobility of larvae makes management of the insect very difficult. Larvae prefer soil moisture in the range of 6 to 16% and become immobile in low soil temperatures.
  • Wireworms are also infamous for their behavioral resistance, i.e., many species have the ability to avoid insecticide-treated areas resulting in control failure.
  • Seed-bait technique
Whitefringed beetle (Nauactus sp.)
  • Adult females are flightless, so dispersion of this insect between fields is relatively slow.
  • Adults walk between fields and choose optimum sites for oviposition.
  • Beetles feed on leaves and cause characteristic “notching” along the leaf margin
  • Since all beetles are females, control of adults could substantially reduce egg numbers.

Insects with piercing-sucking OR rasping-sucking mouthparts


Adult Image*

Larva Image*

Behavior (If Data is on File)

Burrower bug (Pangaeus bilineatus) & feeding injury
  • Burrower bugs are opportunistic insects that readily migrate (starting late-June) in search of suitable host.
  • Adult bugs disperse by walking on soil surfaces and may occasionally take flights. Nymphs prefer to follow cracks in soil rather than walking on soil surfaces because this behavior minimizes risk to the insect from predators.
  • Surface and sub-surface activities of adults and nymphs are affected by soil moisture levels. Adults may dig deep in soil to avoid saturated conditions.
  • Adult bugs are attracted to white light and their high numbers in backyard light could indicate their activity.
3-cornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus)
Tobacco thrips (Franklinealla fusca) No Image on File
Western flower thrips (F. occidentalis) No Image on File
Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) No Image on File

*Click on Images for Larger View


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