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Alabama Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Center

Pest Classification According to Plant Part Consumed/Habitat

Foliar Insect Pests

Name Adult Image* Larva Image*
Corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea)
Tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens)
Green cloverworm (Platypena scabra)
Velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis)
3-cornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus)
Tobacco thrips (Franklinealla fusca) No Image on File
Western flower thrips (F. occidentalis) No Image on File
Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) No Image on File

Insects at the Soil-Air Interface


Adult Image*

Larva Image*

Granulate cutworm (Agrotis subterranea)
Black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon)
Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

Below-ground (pod-feeding) Insect Pests


Adult Image*

Larva Image*


Burrower bug (Pangaeus bilineatus) & feeding injury
  • Burrower bugs are opportunistic insects that readily migrate (starting late-June) in search of suitable host.
  • Adult bugs disperse by walking on soil surfaces and may occasionally take flights. Nymphs prefer to follow cracks in soil rather than walking on soil surfaces because this behavior minimizes risk to the insect from predators.
  • Surface and sub-surface activities of adults and nymphs are affected by soil moisture levels. Adults may dig deep in soil to avoid saturated conditions.
  • Adult bugs are attracted to white light and their high numbers in backyard light could indicate their activity.
Lesser cornstalk borer (Elasmopalpus lignosellus)
  • Research indicates that LCB is better able to survive dry soil conditions in which its natural predators cannot thrive. This anomaly results in a greater incidence of LCB in the soil.
  • Larvae of this insect are attracted to carbon dioxide and heat released by below-ground plant parts of peanuts.
Southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi)
  • Larvae do not make webs, so feeding injury from smaller instars may not be evident on the pods.
  • Adult beetle is highly migratory and a strong flyer.
Bahiagrass borer (Derobrachus brevicollis) & feeding injury
  • No Data on File
White grubs (several species)
  • No Data on File
Wireworms (several species)
  • Good mobility of larvae makes management of the insect very difficult. Larvae prefer soil moisture in the range of 6 to 16% and become immobile in low soil temperatures.
  • Wireworms are also infamous for their behavioral resistance, i.e., many species have the ability to avoid insecticide-treated areas resulting in control failure.
Whitefringed beetle (Nauactus sp.)
  • Adult females are flightless, so dispersion of this insect between fields is relatively slow.
  • Adults walk between fields and choose optimum sites for oviposition.
  • Beetles feed on leaves and cause characteristic “notching” along the leaf margin
  • Since all beetles are females, control of adults could substantially reduce egg numbers.

*Click on Images for Larger View


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